Research and Sources on Biodegradable and Compostable Dog Poop Bags: Reference List
*This is not an exhaustive list but are some of the main sources we have used during our research.
Bio-based plastic concerns:
- Plastic Solutions Review - https://plasticsolutionsreview.com/bio-based-plastics/
- Bioplastics, Issues and Concerns (UNEA briefing packet) | GAIA | June 2022 - https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5eda91260bbb7e7a4bf528d8/t/629f2abd81cae042c741ef4e/1654598333506/UNEA-publication-packet_bioplastic.pdf -
- Life cycle assessment of bio-based and fossil-based plastic: A review -https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0959652620312051?via%3Dihub
- Report produced by the Center for International Environmental Law and GAIA with the support of the Plastic Solutions Fund. ‘An accounting loophole applied to bioplastics underestimates the carbon footprint by overlooking emissions from biomass production, land use, and end-of-life treatment. A full life-cycle accounting shows that bioplastics produce no advantages for the climate, have a toxic production process, and increase land and water use, energy consumption, eutrophication, and acidification.’ - https://www.ciel.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/Plastic-is-Carbon-Oct2021.pdf
- The Truth About Bioplastics, Columbia Climate School -https://news.climate.columbia.edu/2017/12/13/the-truth-about-bioplastics/
- The Unintended Side Effects of Bioplastics: Carbon, Land, and Water Footprints -https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2590332220303055
Biodegradable Plastic Association: 21 problems with compostable plastic-
Further concerns with compostable plastic - https://www.biodeg.org/subjects-of-interest/composting/
Microplastics from biodegradable plastics - https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11356-021-16435-4
PBAT microplastics from biodegradable plastics, Sorption and desorption of phenanthrene on biodegradable poly(butylene adipate co-terephtalate) microplastics, PubMed.
Findings that PBAT absorbs pollutants more strongly than conventional microplastics -
Microplastics in industrial compost:
Biodegradable plastic particles in finished compost -
Publications sharing effects of PBAT from bioplastics when incinerated:
- https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653522014394 - ‘’ - It does however not necessarily follow that biodegradable plastics can be considered as a safer alternative to non-degradable plastics, as it has also been shown that during incineration biodegradable plastics often exhibit similar disadvantages as those associated with non-degradable plastics. This study showed that during combustion of biodegradable PBS and PBAT, 1,3-butadiene, which is a known carcinogen, was emitted at higher than permitted levels.’’
- https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326285864_Carbon_footprint_of_packaging_films_made_from_LDPE_PLA_and_PLAPBAT_blends_in_South_Korea - ‘’The blended bio-plastics with PLA, such as PLA/PBAT, can be more inimical to the environment in terms of carbon dioxide emissions than existing materials, such as LDPE.’’
Life cycle analyses of recycled plastic:
Lowest global warming potential and energy use impacts – https://pubs.aip.org/aip/acp/article/1779/1/140001/825906/Environmental-and-economic-life-cycle-analysis-of
Recycled plastic as a carbon reduction strategy -https://www.preventedoceanplastic.com/recycled-plastic-an-undervalued-carbon-reduction-strategy/
Publication sharing that 60% of certified home compostable plastic is not biodegrading in home compost - https://www.circularonline.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2022/11/Big-compost-policy-briefing-November-2022-FINAL.pdf
Published papers and articles finding that biodegradable plastics are not breaking down in the real world:
- (2015). Biodegradable Plastics and Marine Litter. Misconceptions, concerns and impacts on marine environments. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
- https://bioplasticsnews.com/2020/06/22/compostable-plastics-industrial-composting-site/ - bioplastics in industrial compost
Papers and publications sharing that biodegradable plastics produce methane in landfill:
- Davis G, Song JH (2006) Biodegradable packaging based on raw materials from crops and their impact on waste management. Ind Crops Prod 23:147–161
- Lombardi L, Carnevale E, Corti A (2006) Greenhouse effect reduction and energy recovery from waste landfill. Energy 31:3208–3219
- Machado SL, Carvalho MF, Gourc JP, Vilar OM, do Nascimento JCF (2009) Methane generation in tropical landfills: simplified methods and field results. Waste Manag 29:153–161
Biodegradable and conventional plastic are similarly toxic:
Findings that biobased and biodegradable plastics are similarly toxic to conventional plastics - https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32951901/
BBC Radio 4 podcast ‘Sliced Bread’ discusses poo bags – conclusions where "biodegradable" is "marketing BS", "compostable" comes with several big caveats. If not composting poo bags they recommend re-using waste materials/recycled poop bags.